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OwnCloud 9.0 Server Administration Manual

OwnCloud 9.0 Server Administration Manual

Le OwnCloud 9.0 Server Administration Manual

06 Dec 2020 vadimex
OwnCloud 9.0 Server Administration Manual

Serveur nginx cas d’example Configurations

This page covers example nginx configurations to use with running an ownCloud server. Note that nginx is not officially supported, and this page is community-maintained. (Thank you, contributors!)

  • You need to insert the following code into your nginx configuration file.
  • The configuration assumes that ownCloud is installed in /var/www/owncloud and that it is accessed via http(s)://cloud.example.com.
  • Adjust server_namerootssl_certificate and ssl_certificate_key to suit your needs.
  • Make sure your SSL certificates are readable by the server (see nginx HTTP SSL Module documentation).
  • add_header statements are only taken from the current level and are not cascaded from or to a different level. All necessary add_header statements must be defined in each level needed. For better readability it is possible to move common add header statements into a separate file and include that file wherever necessary. However, each add_header statement must be written in a single line to prevent connection problems with sync clients.

Example Configurations

Be careful about line breaks if you copy the examples, as long lines may be broken for page formatting.

Thanks to @josh4trunks for providing / creating these configuration examples.

You can use ownCloud over plain http, but we strongly encourage you to use SSL/TLS to encrypt all of your server traffic, and to protect user’s logins and data in transit.

  • Remove the server block containing the redirect
  • Change listen 443 ssl to listen 80;
  • Remove ssl_certificate and ssl_certificate_key.
  • Remove fastcgi_params HTTPS on;

ownCloud in the webroot of nginx

The following config should be used when ownCloud is placed in the webroot of your nginx installation.

upstream php-handler {

    server 127.0.0.1:9000;

    #server unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;

}

 

server {

    listen 80;

    server_name cloud.example.com;

    # enforce https

    return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;

}

 

server {

    listen 443 ssl;

    server_name cloud.example.com;

 

    ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/nginx/cloud.example.com.crt;

    ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/nginx/cloud.example.com.key;

 

    # Add headers to serve security related headers

    # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read into this topic first.

    #add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15552000; includeSubDomains";

    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;

    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";

    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";

    add_header X-Robots-Tag none;

    add_header X-Download-Options noopen;

    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;

 

    # Path to the root of your installation

    root /var/www/owncloud/;

 

    location = /robots.txt {

        allow all;

        log_not_found off;

        access_log off;

    }

 

    # The following 2 rules are only needed for the user_webfinger app.

    # Uncomment it if you're planning to use this app.

    #rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta /public.php?service=host-meta last;

    #rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta.json /public.php?service=host-meta-json last;

 

    location = /.well-known/carddav {

        return 301 $scheme://$host/remote.php/dav;

    }

    location = /.well-known/caldav {

        return 301 $scheme://$host/remote.php/dav;

    }

 

    location /.well-known/acme-challenge { }

 

    # set max upload size

    client_max_body_size 512M;

    fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;

 

    # Disable gzip to avoid the removal of the ETag header

    gzip off;

 

    # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module

    # This module is currently not supported.

    #pagespeed off;

 

    error_page 403 /core/templates/403.php;

    error_page 404 /core/templates/404.php;

 

    location / {

        rewrite ^ /index.php$uri;

    }

 

    location ~ ^/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {

        return 404;

    }

    location ~ ^/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {

        return 404;

    }

 

    location ~ ^/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core/ajax/update|status|ocs/v[12]|updater/.+|ocs-provider/.+|core/templates/40[34])\.php(?:$|/) {

        fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;

        include fastcgi_params;

        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;

        fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;

        fastcgi_param HTTPS on;

        fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; #Avoid sending the security headers twice

        fastcgi_param front_controller_active true;

        fastcgi_pass php-handler;

        fastcgi_intercept_errors on;

        fastcgi_request_buffering off; #Available since nginx 1.7.11

    }

 

    location ~ ^/(?:updater|ocs-provider)(?:$|/) {

        try_files $uri $uri/ =404;

        index index.php;

    }

 

    # Adding the cache control header for js and css files

    # Make sure it is BELOW the PHP block

    location ~* \.(?:css|js)$ {

        try_files $uri /index.php$uri$is_args$args;

        add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=7200";

        # Add headers to serve security related headers (It is intended to have those duplicated to the ones above)

        # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read into this topic first.

        #add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15552000; includeSubDomains";

        add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;

        add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";

        add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";

        add_header X-Robots-Tag none;

        add_header X-Download-Options noopen;

        add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;

        # Optional: Don't log access to assets

        access_log off;

    }

 

    location ~* \.(?:svg|gif|png|html|ttf|woff|ico|jpg|jpeg)$ {

        try_files $uri /index.php$uri$is_args$args;

        # Optional: Don't log access to other assets

        access_log off;

    }

}

ownCloud in a subdir of nginx

The following config should be used when ownCloud is placed within a subdir of your nginx installation.

upstream php-handler {

    server 127.0.0.1:9000;

    #server unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;

}

 

server {

    listen 80;

    server_name cloud.example.com;

    # enforce https

    return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;

}

 

server {

    listen 443 ssl;

    server_name cloud.example.com;

 

    ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/nginx/cloud.example.com.crt;

    ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/nginx/cloud.example.com.key;

 

    # Add headers to serve security related headers

    # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read into this topic first.

    #add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15552000; includeSubDomains";

    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;

    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";

    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";

    add_header X-Robots-Tag none;

    add_header X-Download-Options noopen;

    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;

 

    # Path to the root of your installation

    root /var/www/;

 

    location = /robots.txt {

        allow all;

        log_not_found off;

        access_log off;

    }

 

    # The following 2 rules are only needed for the user_webfinger app.

    # Uncomment it if you're planning to use this app.

    #rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta /owncloud/public.php?service=host-meta last;

    #rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta.json /owncloud/public.php?service=host-meta-json last;

 

    location = /.well-known/carddav {

        return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;

    }

    location = /.well-known/caldav {

        return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;

    }

 

    location /.well-known/acme-challenge { }

 

    location ^~ /owncloud {

 

        # set max upload size

        client_max_body_size 512M;

        fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;

 

        # Disable gzip to avoid the removal of the ETag header

        gzip off;

 

        # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module

        # This module is currently not supported.

        #pagespeed off;

 

        error_page 403 /owncloud/core/templates/403.php;

        error_page 404 /owncloud/core/templates/404.php;

 

        location /owncloud {

            rewrite ^ /owncloud/index.php$uri;

        }

 

        location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {

            return 404;

        }

        location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {

            return 404;

        }

 

        location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core/ajax/update|status|ocs/v[12]|updater/.+|ocs-provider/.+|core/templates/40[34])\.php(?:$|/) {

            fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;

            include fastcgi_params;

            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;

            fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;

            fastcgi_param HTTPS on;

            fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; #Avoid sending the security headers twice

            fastcgi_param front_controller_active true;

            fastcgi_pass php-handler;

            fastcgi_intercept_errors on;

            fastcgi_request_buffering off; #Available since nginx 1.7.11

        }

 

        location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:updater|ocs-provider)(?:$|/) {

            try_files $uri $uri/ =404;

            index index.php;

        }

 

        # Adding the cache control header for js and css files

        # Make sure it is BELOW the PHP block

        location ~* \.(?:css|js)$ {

            try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;

            add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=7200";

            # Add headers to serve security related headers  (It is intended to have those duplicated to the ones above)

            # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read into this topic first.

            #add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15552000; includeSubDomains";

            add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;

            add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";

            add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";

            add_header X-Robots-Tag none;

            add_header X-Download-Options noopen;

            add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;

            # Optional: Don't log access to assets

            access_log off;

        }

 

        location ~* \.(?:svg|gif|png|html|ttf|woff|ico|jpg|jpeg)$ {

            try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;

            # Optional: Don't log access to other assets

            access_log off;

        }

    }

}

Suppressing Log Messages

If you’re seeing meaningless messages in your logfile, for example client denied by server configuration: /var/www/data/htaccesstest.txt, add this section to your nginx configuration to suppress them:

location = /data/htaccesstest.txt {

  allow all;

  log_not_found off;

  access_log off;

}

JavaScript (.js) or CSS (.css) files not served properly

A common issue with custom nginx configs is that JavaScript (.js) or CSS (.css) files are not served properly leading to a 404 (File not found) error on those files and a broken webinterface.

This could be caused by the:

location ~* \.(?:css|js)$ {

block shown above not located below the:

location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {

block. Other custom configurations like caching JavaScript (.js) or CSS (.css) files via gzip could also cause such issues.

Performance Tuning

nginx (<1.9.5) <ngx_http_spdy_module nginx (+1.9.5) <ngx_http_http2_module

To use http_v2 for nginx you have to check two things:

1.) be aware that this module is not built in by default due to a dependency to the openssl version used on your system. It will be enabled with the --with-http_v2_module configuration parameter during compilation. The dependency should be checked automatically. You can check the presence of http_v2 with nginx -V 2>&1 | grep http_v2 -o. An example of how to compile nginx can be found in section “Configure nginx with the nginx-cache-purge module” below.

2.) When you have used SPDY before, the nginx config has to be changed from listen 443 ssl spdy; to listen 443 ssl http2;

nginx: caching ownCloud gallery thumbnails

One of the optimizations for ownCloud when using nginx as the Web server is to combine FastCGI caching with “Cache Purge”, a 3rdparty nginx module that adds the ability to purge content from FastCGI, proxy, SCGI and uWSGI caches. This mechanism speeds up thumbnail presentation as it shifts requests to nginx and minimizes php invocations which otherwise would take place for every thumbnail presented every time.

The following procedure is based on an Ubuntu 14.04 system. You may need to adapt it according your OS type and release.

Unlike Apache, nginx does not dynamically load modules. All modules needed must be compiled into nginx. This is one of the reasons for nginx´s performance. It is expected to have an already running nginx installation with a working configuration set up as described in the ownCloud documentation.

nginx module check

As a first step, it is necessary to check if your nginx installation has the nginx cache purge module compiled in:

nginx -V 2>&1 | grep ngx_cache_purge -o

If your output contains ngx_cache_purge, you can continue with the configuration, otherwise you need to manually compile nginx with the module needed.

Compile nginx with the nginx-cache-purge module

  1. Preparation:

cd /opt

wget http://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key

sudo apt-key add nginx_signing.key

sudo vi /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nginx.list

Add the following lines (if different, replace {trusty} by your distribution name):

deb http://nginx.org/packages/mainline/ubuntu/ trusty nginx

deb -src http://nginx.org/packages/mainline/ubuntu/ trusty nginx

Then run sudo apt-get update

If you’re not overly cautious and wish to install the latest and greatest nginx packages and features, you may have to install nginx from its mainline repository. From the nginx homepage: “In general, you should deploy nginx from its mainline branch at all times.” If you would like to use standard nginx from the latest mainline branch but without compiling in any additional modules, just run sudo apt-get install nginx.

  1. Download the nginx source from the ppa repository

cd /opt

sudo apt-get build-dep nginx

sudo apt-get source nginx

  1. Download module(s) to be compiled in and configure compiler arguments

ls -la

Please replace {release} with the release downloaded:

cd /opt/nginx-{release}/debian

If folder “modules” is not present, do:

sudo mkdir modules

cd modules

sudo git clone https://github.com/FRiCKLE/ngx_cache_purge.git

sudo vi /opt/nginx-{release}/debian/rules

If not present, add the following line at the top under:

#export DH_VERBOSE=1:

MODULESDIR = $(CURDIR)/debian/modules

And at the end of every configure command add:

--add-module=$(MODULESDIR)/ngx_cache_purge

Don’t forget to escape preceeding lines with a backslash \. The parameters may now look like:

--with-cc-opt="$(CFLAGS)" \

--with-ld-opt="$(LDFLAGS)" \

--with-ipv6 \

--add-module=$(MODULESDIR)/ngx_cache_purge

  1. Compile and install nginx

cd /opt/nginx-{release}

sudo dpkg-buildpackage -uc -b

ls -la /opt

sudo dpkg --install /opt/nginx_{release}~{distribution}_amd64.deb

  1. Check if the compilation and installation of the ngx_cache_purge module was successful

nginx -V 2>&1 | grep ngx_cache_purge -o

It should now show: ngx_cache_purge

Show nginx version including all features compiled and installed:

nginx -V 2>&1 | sed s/" --"/"\n\t--"/g

  1. Mark nginx to be blocked from further updates via apt-get

sudo dpkg --get-selections | grep nginx

For every nginx component listed run sudo apt-mark hold <component>

  1. Regular checks for nginx updates

Do a regular visit on the nginx news page and proceed in case of updates with items 2 to 5.

Configure nginx with the nginx-cache-purge module

  1. Preparation Create a directory where nginx will save the cached thumbnails. Use any path that fits to your environment. Replace {path} in this example with your path created:

sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/tmp/cache

  1. Configuration

sudo vi /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/{your-ownCloud-nginx-config-file}

Add at the beginning, but outside the server{} block:

# cache_purge

fastcgi_cache_path {path} levels=1:2 keys_zone=OWNCLOUD:100m inactive=60m;

map $request_uri $skip_cache {

     default 1;

     ~*/thumbnail.php 0;

     ~*/apps/galleryplus/ 0;

     ~*/apps/gallery/ 0;

}

Please adopt or delete any regex line in the map block according your needs and the ownCloud version used. As an alternative to mapping, you can use as many if statements in your server block as necessary:

set $skip_cache 1;

if ($request_uri ~* "thumbnail.php")      { set $skip_cache 0; }

if ($request_uri ~* "/apps/galleryplus/") { set $skip_cache 0; }

if ($request_uri ~* "/apps/gallery/")     { set $skip_cache 0; }

Add inside the server{} block, as an example of a configuration:

# cache_purge (with $http_cookies we have unique keys for the user)

fastcgi_cache_key $http_cookie$request_method$host$request_uri;

fastcgi_cache_use_stale error timeout invalid_header http_500;

fastcgi_ignore_headers Cache-Control Expires Set-Cookie;

 

location ~ \.php(?:$/) {

      fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;

 

      include fastcgi_params;

      fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;

      fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;

      fastcgi_param HTTPS on;

      fastcgi_pass php-handler;

 

      # cache_purge

      fastcgi_cache_bypass $skip_cache;

      fastcgi_no_cache $skip_cache;

      fastcgi_cache OWNCLOUD;

      fastcgi_cache_valid  60m;

      fastcgi_cache_methods GET HEAD;

      }

Note regarding the fastcgi_pass parameter: Use whatever fits your configuration. In the example above, an upstream was defined in an nginx global configuration file. This may look like:

upstream php-handler {

    server unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;

    # or

    # server 127.0.0.1:9000;

  }

  1. Test the configuration

sudo nginx -s reload

  • Open your browser and clear your cache.
  • Logon to your ownCloud instance, open the gallery app, move thru your folders and watch while the thumbnails are generated for the first time.
  • You may also watch with eg. htop your system load while the thumbnails are processed.
  • Go to another app or logout and relogon.
  • Open the gallery app again and browse to the folders you accessed before. Your thumbnails should appear more or less immediately.
  • htop will not show up additional load while processing, compared to the high load before.

       

All documentation licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

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© Copyright 2012-2016, The ownCloud developers.

 

 

=======================================================================

 

SELinux Configuration

When you have SELinux enabled on your Linux distribution, you may run into permissions problems after a new ownCloud installation, and see permission denied errors in your ownCloud logs.

When you are testing ownCloud or troubleshooting,

The following settings should work for most SELinux systems that use the default distro profiles. Run these commands as root, and remember to adjust the filepaths in these examples for your installation:

semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/var/www/html/owncloud/data(/.*)?'
semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/var/www/html/owncloud/config(/.*)?'
semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/var/www/html/owncloud/apps(/.*)?'
semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/var/www/html/owncloud/assets(/.*)?'
semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/var/www/html/owncloud/.htaccess'
semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/var/www/html/owncloud/.user.ini'

 
restorecon -Rv '/var/www/html/owncloud/'

If you uninstall ownCloud you need to remove the ownCloud directory labels. To do this execute the following commands as root after uninstalling ownCloud:

semanage fcontext -d '/var/www/html/owncloud/data(/.*)?'
semanage fcontext -d '/var/www/html/owncloud/config(/.*)?'
semanage fcontext -d '/var/www/html/owncloud/apps(/.*)?'
semanage fcontext -d '/var/www/html/owncloud/assets(/.*)?'
semanage fcontext -d '/var/www/html/owncloud/.htaccess'
semanage fcontext -d '/var/www/html/owncloud/.user.ini'

 
restorecon -Rv '/var/www/html/owncloud/'

Note: The assets folder is only required if JavaScript and CSS Asset Management is enabled. (asset-pipeline.enabled' => true, in config.php)

If you have customized SELinux policies and these examples do not work, you must give the HTTP server write access to these directories:

/var/www/html/owncloud/data
/var/www/html/owncloud/config
/var/www/html/owncloud/apps
/var/www/html/owncloud/assets

Enable updates via the web interface

To enable updates via the ownCloud web interface, you may need this to enable writing to the ownCloud directories:

setsebool httpd_unified on

When the update is completed, disable write access:

setsebool -P  httpd_unified  off

Disallow write access to the whole web directory

For security reasons it’s suggested to disable write access to all folders in /var/www/ (default):

setsebool -P  httpd_unified  off

Allow access to a remote database

An additional setting is needed if your installation is connecting to a remote database:

setsebool -P httpd_can_network_connect_db on

Allow access to LDAP server

Use this setting to allow LDAP connections:

setsebool -P httpd_can_connect_ldap on

Allow access to remote network

ownCloud requires access to remote networks for functions such as Server-to-Server sharing, external storages or the app store. To allow this access use the following setting:

setsebool -P httpd_can_network_connect on

Allow access to network memcache

This setting is not required if httpd_can_network_connect is already on:

setsebool -P httpd_can_network_memcache on

Allow access to SMTP/sendmail

If you want to allow ownCloud to send out e-mail notifications via sendmail you need to use the following setting:

setsebool -P httpd_can_sendmail on

Allow access to CIFS/SMB

If you have placed your datadir on a CIFS/SMB share use the following setting:

setsebool -P httpd_use_cifs on

Allow access to FuseFS

If your owncloud data folder resides on a Fuse Filesystem (e.g. EncFS etc), this setting is required as well:

setsebool -P httpd_use_fusefs on

Allow access to GPG for Rainloop

If you use a the rainloop webmail client app which supports GPG/PGP, you might need this:

setsebool -P httpd_use_gpg on

Troubleshooting

For general Troubleshooting of SELinux and its profiles try to install the package setroubleshoot and run:

sealert -a /var/log/audit/audit.log > /path/to/mylogfile.txt

to get a report which helps you configuring your SELinux profiles.

Another tool for troubleshooting is to enable a single ruleset for your ownCloud directory:

semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/var/www/html/owncloud(/.*)?'
restorecon -RF /var/www/html/owncloud

It is much stronger security to have a more fine-grained ruleset as in the examples at the beginning, so use this only for testing and troubleshooting. It has a similar effect to disabling SELinux, so don’t use it on production systems.

See this discussion on GitHub to learn more about configuring SELinux correctly for ownCloud.

sources: https://doc.owncloud.org/server/9.0/admin_manual/installation/nginx_examples.html